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The rationale for organic cosmetics with their consequences for health, society, the environment, and in homeopathic treatments
The use of cosmetics is now an integral part of our civilization and our “image” of ourselves, our physical appearance, has acquired an almost absolute value in our communications with the world around us.
The words of the legal description of the term ‘cosmetic’ are actually becoming a reality: “substances and compounds, as distinct from medicines, designed for the external surfaces of human body…to modify its appearance..”.
So appearance is becoming increasingly more important than our true and innermost being, and our inner values are being swapped or exchanged for the cult of outward appearance, determined by mass-media and advertising which are more interested in business and profit than in people’s health.
But thankfully, beyond these hedonistic influences, beyond appearance or what others want you to believe is true, a new awareness is growing amongst consumers; an awareness that, stemming from a more mindful attitude, prompts the consumer to stop, reflect and ask for information before buying a product.
This new attitude is seen, at least here in UK and I’m sure also in Italy, in the choice of cosmetics, in the careful reading of their labels, in a better understanding of their contents and, last but not least, an appreciation of their effective quality and their environmental impact.
In this paper we will analyze the impact of cosmetics on the general environment, on our lovely planet and on our health, which is the first place we must protect and then, in detail, consider all possible implications for natural therapies and in particular in homeopathy.
We will focus on the use of organic in cosmetics, as a solution and a contribution for a healthier and more beautiful World.
Current figures re cosmetic turnover in Italy and Europe as of 2010
Historical Consumption of Cosmetics
Cosmetics in Europe
- Figures from Colipa, the European association representing the cosmetics industry, confirms Germany as the top consumer of cosmetics in 2010 with a turnover of 12,792 million Euros, followed by France at 12,725 million Euros, UK at 9,653 million Euros and lastly Italy at 9,273 million Euros and Spain, 7,134 million Euros.
- The index of concentration confirms that the top 5 Countries account for a little less than 70% of the entire European Market.
- In Europe, the highest selling products are cosmetics for skin care that account for 25.8% of the whole.
- Europe, spending more than 66 billion Euros is the top global consumer, followed by USA at almost 38 billion Euros, and then Japan, just short of 30 billion.
The cosmetic sector indicates a turnaround in industrial production (+5.2% against -3.2% in 2009) and in export (+17% against -11.8% in 2009) while many industries are using the economic crisis to reestablish themselves in the world market, to reorganize themselves and create innovative products and processes, according to 75.5% of businessmen interviewed.
In UK 89.7 % of women use perfumes and fragrances and 80.4% apply lipstick. Men are not to be ignored in this sector – in 2006 men in England spent £881 million (+5%).
Cosmetics and their impact on the environment
Washing your hands, or brushing your teeth with toothpaste, having a shower, shaving, or washing your hair are common actions that millions of people repeat every day. And this without mentioning other more specific actions: the use of moisturisers, creams, oils, hairsprays or hair-dye, fake tans, balms, products for personal hygiene, perfumes, after-shave, oils for before and after sun, deodorants, bath salts, nail gloss, lip gloss, lipsticks and other make-up, products for your body, perfumes etc..
But, what is the consequence of these simple hygiene requirements or these complex cosmetic “needs”? The direct consequence is that millions of tonnes of synthetic chemicals are poured into our water, our rivers and seas, into the air we breathe, into the earth we till, and they interact with our Ecosystem, already delicate and damaged enough, with serious consequences for its equilibrium and, more especially, with grave direct and indirect risks to our health.
Adult women (..and not only women..) use approximately 12 cosmetic products per day, teen-agers as many as 17*.
It is estimated that more than 400 million tonnes of chemical substances are produced each year and part of this is related to the production and commercialization of cosmetics, of which 2 million tons are produced in Europe alone*.
According to the National Geographic 700,000 tonnes of pollutants are released into the air daily, partly from home products, partly from cosmetics and hair-dyes. Somebody living in an industrialized country may be exposed to up to 500 pollutants*.
The European Inventory of Existing Commercial chemical Substances (EINECS) lists 100,000 chemical substances, and 75,000 in USA of which 10,000 are used by big cosmetic companies.
*(D. Mellowship: “Toxic Beauty”, Gaia – Octopus Publishing Goup- 2009).
Scientists at Birmingham and Warwick universities have warned that the mix of disinfectants, shampoos and other household products are producing drug-resistant bacteria around the coasts of Britain, increasing the likelihood that certain medicines will be ineffective at combatting dangerous diseases.
Research by the Department of Plants and Environmental Science at the University of Gothenburg (Tobias Porsbring), has demonstrated that chemicals assumed to be non-toxic in isolation can create a ‘cocktail’ of chemicals once in the water course that together pose an environmental threat. (http://toxicbeauty.co.uk/blog/tag/cosmetic-pollution/)
Researchers at Baylor University, working in conjunction with US Environmental Protect Agency (EPA), have detected residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish caught near wastewater treatment plants serving five major U.S. cities. A similar phenomenon was found with regard to nanoparticles, increasingly often used in cosmetics.
In a study commissioned by the Environmental Working Group (EWG) and the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD), the residential and industrial sewage outflows of Saint Francisco Bay were analyzed; 18 out of 19 samples were contaminated by three endocrine disruptors: Triclosan, Bisphenol A and Phthalates.
See graph below
Other studies have recorded high levels of benzene and naphthalene in the brains of salmon and trout. A further problem linked to the break-down of certain substances used in cosmetics is the creation of nonoxynols and other alkylphenol compounds with a hormone mimicry effect in turn leading to abnormalities in the sexual development of fishes and animals.
In the 1990’s in Florida, sexual abnormalities were found in 67% of panthers, as well as in whales in Québec. In Lake Eire, salmon were found with thyroids up to a million times bigger than normal.
(Kim Ericson: Drop-Dead Gorgeous. Contemporary Books. 2002)
In 2005 Greenpeace commissioned an analysis of branded perfumes and cosmetics (shampoos, etc..) and phthalates and synthetic musk were found in many of them. Both these are “endocrine disruptors” so they interfere with the hormone process, mimicking the action of oestrogen in the body. They have been linked to breast cancer, reduction in sperm counts and thyroid abnormalities. On one hand, they are absorbed by our body with all the attendant consequences, on the other hand, they are released into the environment increasing its pollution.
In another study of the Aisonas River in Greece, 4 phenolic compounds were found: nonylphenol monoethoxylate, bisphenol A and triclosan (all endocrine disruptors) along with 4 non-steroidal medicines. The presence of these compounds puts the aquatic environment and all its organisms at risk, and consequently also the human body.
(Athanasios S Stasinakis, Smaragdi Mermigka, Vasilios G Samaras, Eleni Farmaki, Nikolaos S Thomaidis. Water and Air Quality Laboratory, Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene, 81 100, Greece)
In another Norwegian study commissioned by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT) to examine the pollution of water by selected pharmaceuticals (16 types + 2 derived from sexual hormones) and cosmetics (7 different chemical substances) it was found that only 3 of these remained undetected. Every other compound was identified in the waste waters, the result of human drug and cosmetic use with all the consequent environmental effects.
In our closed Ecosystem, there is no action, whether at an industrial level or in the home, without an Environmental impact. This is the philosophy, consolidated now by various scientific and Quantum theories, which asserts that all is One. As a consequence, the molecules of a hairspray used by a fashionable hairdresser in any given city will arrive in someone’s lungs many thousands of miles away.
Cosmetics and the impact on health
As already mentioned in a previous study of mine, (63rd LMHI World Congress 2008: Evidence Based Homeopathy – Oostende, Belgium:”THE ROLE OF THE SKIN IN THE HOMEOPATHIC HEALING PROCESS. How chemical ingredients in cosmetics and in the environment can have an impact on the skin), the idea that the skin is impervious to substances applied to its surface is called into question by many studies which have shown that traces of a large number of toxic cosmetic substances are found in human tissues and organs.
The very fact that many oils used in cosmetics are termed ‘carriers’, or that in commercial cosmetics many are defined as “penetrating enhancers” (e.g. sodium lauryl sulphate, propylene glycol (PG), polyethylene glycol (PEG), acetone, ethanol, lactic acid, disodium EDTA, etc.), to assist the absorption of other chemical substances into the lymphatic and circulatory systems, are but small examples of the extent to which our health could be at risk. Substances may pass more easily through the layer of the skin if there is a deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFA) in the corneal layer of the epidermis.
According to Dr. Epstein, the capacity of the skin to absorb the carcinogenic substance N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) is 100 times greater than by oral absorption, bearing in mind also a certain hepatic detoxification action from oral absorption, in contrast to substances absorbed by the skin which pass directly into the bloodstream.
(Epstein, S: How to avoid cancer and other toxic effects, from cosmetics and personal care products: The neway’s story, second edition, Environmental Toxicology Inc., 2005)
In addition, it is important to consider that the skins of children and the elderly are more delicate and sensitive: the protective barriers are still weak in children and often damaged in older people. In young people, the continued use of shower soaps and often aggressive body products, or excessive washing, changes the protective hydrolipidic barrier, increasing the number and the quantity of substances absorbed.
Another example of the way in which the skin’s permeable property is used is the increasing administration of medicines by trans-cutaneous means (hormonal, nicotine, anti-inflammatory patches).
This capability is becoming not only a cause of skin sensitization problems (see the dramatic increase in allergies in the last decades), but has also led to the phenomenon of chemical substances accumulating inside the body (bio-accumulation).
How many chemical substances do we absorb annually through the use of commercial and other cosmetics? And of these, what proportion remains trapped in the subcutaneous-tissue causing irritation? And what are consequences for the immune system and the excretory mechanism?
In 2004, a study presented by the EWG in USA, found, in the blood of the umbilical cord of new born babies, an average of approximately 200 chemical and dangerous substances*.
It is estimated that a woman who regularly applies lipstick will swallow more than a kilogram of chemical substances over her lifetime, and of the substances we apply to the skin, up to 70% may be absorbed (depending on their molecular size).
* (D. Mellowship: “Toxic Beauty”, Gaia – Octopus Publishing Goup- 2009)
And if a woman uses between 12 and 17 cosmetic products per day, even if her body absorbs a minimum quantity, how many grams or, maybe, kilos will she absorb in the course of her life? And what are the consequences for her body?
Another problem is synthetic perfumes and fragrances (there are more than 4,000 and around 95% are synthetic and petroleum derived): many are toxic and allergenic and are often carried by denatured alcohol that alters the hydro-lipidic layer of the skin. Consider, for example that when men shave (the same goes for women who use a razor) the skin’s corneal layer is damaged and removed, so increasing the skin’s permeability. After shaving, in most cases, an alcohol-based aftershave with synthetic perfumes it is applied which permeates the skin more easily (see the increase in allergic skin reactions).
In addition to this, volatile chemical substances present in perfumes and synthetic fragrances (perfumes, spray deodorants, air-fresheners for houses or cars, in candles and in incense), rapidly penetrate the brain and the airways causing possible general sensitization or allergic reactions such as headaches and nausea. In recent years, many people have developed what it is called Multiple Chemical Sensitivities (MCS).
Many schools and universities have banned perfumes (scent-free areas), aware of the potential damage to students and teachers caused by chemical perfumes, not to mention also to the environment.
Alongside perfumes, there is another class of chemical substances present in cosmetics: these are endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC), chemical compounds that enter our bodies, mimicking the action of the sex hormones (especially oestrogen) and causing a series of well-studied and documented biological changes.
Below a table showing the health effects of certain chemical substances and where they are found.
http://www.ewg.org/water/downthedrain EWG Research Water pollution caused by cosmetic chemicals, cleaning supplies and plastic. To this table parabens and alkylphenol ethoxylates PEG must be added.
Other endocrine disrupting compounds are: benzophenone-3 (BP3), homosalate (HMS), nitromusk, polycyclic musk, octyl-dimethyl-PABA (OD-PABA), resorcinol, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (B-MDM), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC).
(Samuel S. Epstein, M.D. Cancer Prevention Coalition University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, www.preventcancer.com)
Many of these endocrine disruptors have been linked with an increased risk of breast cancer.
There follows a table summarizing chemical substances (present in cosmetic products) linked in some way to breast cancer:
Cancerogenic or potentially cancerogenic substances:
Diethanolamine acetaldehyde (DEA), p-phenylenediamine (PPD), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), ethyl acrylate, organic solvents (benzene, toluene, formaldehyde).
Other chemical substances such as diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin and quaternium-15 may release the suspected carcinogen formaldehyde* as they degrade.
A Finnish study found that 85% of the examined eye shadows contained more than 5 parts per million of one of the following heavy metals: lead, cobalt, chrome and also arsenic.
* (D. Mellowship: “Toxic Beauty”, Gaia – Octopus Publishing Goup- 2009).
These facts together paint a worrying picture requiring ever greater awareness in our choices.
As has been said many times, the skin is an organ intimately and extraordinarily connected with the inside of the body and which, directly and indirectly, reflects our overall state of health. A careful clinical observation of the skin can gather many signs of internal pathologies since, like a mirror (whether biochemical or pathological), it shows weakness, tendencies, disease.
The skin is an organ that breathes (it absorbs O2 and releases CO2), and in spite of its waterproof quality, absorbs many types of chemical substances especially lipophilic ones (unfortunately also pollutant hydrocarbons) therefore playing a fundamental role in maintaining the state of health or disease.
I should also talk in a general sense about energy consumption because, if foreign substances, recognized by the system as toxic, penetrate the skin, they can stimulate both immune and detoxification defensive mechanisms using up inner energies which are thus no longer available for other physiological functions.
The skin is also fundamental for its emunctory capacity, for its ability to release inner metabolites and toxins. In this sense, taking care of it with cosmetics, not only from an aesthetic but also hygiene point of view can have a notable impact on the state of our overall health.
If the skin is “poisoned” by substances that do not respect its physiology and chemical composition such as petroleum by-products (INCI=petrolatum) or silicon by-products that block its pores obstructing its respiration, or by chemical compounds (both cosmetic and medicinal) that irritate it and stimulate its defensive mechanisms, causing stress, it is clear that its emunctory mechanisms may be totally or partially blocked, causing damage to the whole system.
It is important to pay attention also to the materials we wear and the detergents used to wash them. Synthetic fibers can prevent the skin from breathing properly through the accumulation of electrostatic energy, and traces of chemical detergent traces may irritate the skin and increase its sensitivity.
In summary, it is clear that from both a physiological and psychological view, the skin is not only a “barrier” offering external protection from physical, chemical or other attacks, but also an organ of communication sending messages and signals from inside to out, breathing and creating a link between our inner world, biological and psychological, and the world around us. If looked after naturally and properly, both inside and out, your skin will be naturally bright, radiant, healthy and vibrant.
The Medical approach
It is clear from this analysis that a doctor, whether allopathic or non-conventional, must in some way consider the hygiene of their patient, including also their use of cosmetics because these can contribute to the appearance of sometimes serious internal and dermatological conditions.
The body and the skin, as shown above, are constantly interacting with the cosmetic substances they come into contact with and any therapeutic intervention must or should take them into consideration, both with regard to case history, as well as in a more general sense in relation to therapy and lifestyle advice.
This is true especially for doctors of non-conventional medicine (homeopathy, phytotherapy, anthroposophical medicine, chinese medicine, etc.) since these medicines place great significance on internal toxification and any blocking of the emunctory mechanism, and external drainage is very important in the natural healing process.
For example, if natural drainage remedies are given without at the same time eliminating bad food or lifestyle habits, including cosmetics with a high synthetic content, the eliminatory processes will be slowed down or blocked, protracting or stopping the recovery process.
(63rd LMHI World Congress 2008: Evidence Based Homeopathy – Oostende, Belgium:”THE ROLE OF THE SKIN IN THE HOMEOPATHIC HEALING PROCESS. Dr. M Spiezia- www.inlight-online.co.uk)
The skin represents a fundamental excretory organ in the eliminatory processes and blocking it with petroleum or silicon-based cosmetic substances for example, will interfere with this important function.
More than 200 years ago Samuel Hahnemann, the father of homeopathy, had already considered that the application onto the skin of substances designed to treat epidermal conditions, could internalize a disease and prevent the skin from fulfilling its emunctory function.
In light of these considerations, particular care should be taken by the homeopath in prescribing the remedy, both with regard to history of the case, and to the patient’s hygiene habits, given that certain homeopathic remedies may be antidotaded by chemical substances or perfumes present in cosmetics, with all the potential consequences.
(63rd LMHI World Congress 2008: Evidence Based Homeopathy – Oostende, Belgium:”THE ROLE OF THE SKIN IN THE HOMEOPATHIC HEALING PROCESS. How chemical ingredients in cosmetics and in the environment can have an impact on the skin2. Dr. M Spiezia- www.inlight-online.co.uk)
At this point, in the last few years, a new awareness has been spreading among end-users of cosmetics (all of us..) not as a short-lived fashion, but stemming from a greater sense of responsibility towards ourselves and the environment. Starting from the ‘80s a more widespread awareness has grown, also amongst the middle-class and not restricted to a few ‘back-to-nature’ pioneers, in the years when environmental pollution, the use and abuse of pesticides and herbicides, the use and abuse of steroids, medicines and vaccines in animal husbandry and the resulting effects of all this on health and the environment, pushed many people to choose organic food. Be it out of fear for the health risks or out of love for the earth and our Planet, the choice of organic has continued to grow steadily and Italy now has one of the highest number of hectares farmed in accordance with organic principles in the world.
The step from food to cosmetics has not perhaps been short, but is certainly not without consequence.
The response to a growing alarm regarding the impact of chemical cosmetics on the environment and on health, often highlighted by the media in both Europe and USA in recent years, together with the growth of a more ‘focused’ awareness, has resulted in a change of direction both of end-users and the cosmetics industry.
In fact, natural cosmetics, especially certified organic cosmetics, offer the choice of taking care of ourselves which puts the individual at the center of a new relationship between beauty, health and the environment in an ever tighter and more closely interdependent link.
In 2010, the “natural” cosmetic business in Italy amounted to 365 million Euros, with a growth of 5.5%, against 1.1% of the whole market (UNIPRO) and the trend is still rising.
But what does natural cosmetics and organic cosmetics mean?
Behind the words natural cosmetics there are sometimes confused and misleading messages.
Many cosmetics with a very low concentration of plant extracts or only one “natural” ingredient are marketed in eye-catching packaging with flowers and leaves to induce the consumer to think that nature was behind the product or as a source of inspiration. Often a product has been marketed as ‘natural’ when composed of only 0.1% herbal extract and the remaining 99.9% of synthetic chemicals. This anomaly is even more misleading for cosmetics promoted as organic.
Luckily, the concept of natural and organic cosmetics has made some good steps forward and standards have been created by regulatory bodies, specifying parameters and characteristics for consumer protection. Recently, a big effort has been made to unify all standards because each country had its own way of operating and its own regulatory bodies with different parameters that, on some occasions, created confusion or mistrust amongst consumers. This need for harmonization, after some years of transition and mediation between the different parties, had as a consequence the birth of a super-national organization, the Cosmetics Organic Standard, (COSMOS) based in Brussels, Belgium, and to which the following organs of national control have signed up, with the intention of unifying these standards:
Soil Association (GB), ICEA (Italy), Ecocert and Cosmebio (France), BDIH (Deutschland).
What is the philosophy behind this new organization?
The first concept is one of sustainable development which reconciles, even in the cosmetic sector, economic progress, social responsibility and maintaining of natural balance of the planet. How?
-Promoting the use of products grown organically, and respecting biodiversity
-Using natural resources responsibly and respecting the environment.
-Using production techniques that are clean and respectful of human health and the environment.
-Integrating and developing the concept of “Green Chemistry”.
The fundamental ratified principles are:
– The precautionary principle applied to ingredients, technology and production processes.
– The ban on use of nanomaterial.
– The ban on use of GMOs.
– The ban on use of irradiation.
– The ban on animal testing.
The standards cover two areas, the first related to so-called organic cosmetic products, the second to natural.
-For products to be certified as Organic, at least 95% of the agricultural ingredients must be organically produced and certified. These ingredients must represent at least 20% of total ingredients, rising to 30% within 60 months from the introduction of the standards (January 2011).
-For products to be certified as Natural, considering the general regulations above, there is no requirement to use a minimum level of certified organic ingredients in the product.
In addition, other specifications are related to the environmental management of the production chain including the processing of by-products with the aim to reduce, reuse and recycle. These specifications relate also to primary and secondary packaging.
For further details about the other norms (e.g. the labeling guide, permitted or banned ingredients) please refer to the COSMOS standards.
Real efforts have been made via COSMOS and the national bodies, which whilst they may not yet have signed up to COSMOS have played and continue to play an important role in regulating the constantly evolving cosmetic market, in order to try to bring discipline and harmonization to this sector which has been so abused over the last few years, and most of all to give credibility to the whole arena of natural and organic cosmetics in order to protect the end-user and give consumers clear directions for their choice of products. This has been a real step forward towards transparency and democracy.
Whilst the natural cosmetic certification certainly represents an important step towards greater responsibility both on the part of the industry and the end-user, it goes without saying that the most meaningful step and final choice is organic certification, which reflects a closer adhesion to the principle of environmental and health protection.
So what does an organic cosmetic mean?
-It means that more than 4500 of the 8000 substances permitted for the production of conventional cosmetics are banned.
-It means that all synthetic chemical substances are banned.
-It means the absence of synthetic colouring.
-It means that ingredients are processed only by physical rather than chemical means, thus preserving their integrity and avoiding any change in their structure.
-It means a high concentration of active ingredients of plant origin (oils, essential oils, phyto-extracts, floral waters).
-It means products with great affinity to the skin hence also more effective.
-It means a reduction in allergic or intolerance epidermal reactions.
-It means, as previously mentioned, a positive impact on the body itself, as anything absorbed from a product by the skin does not “intoxicate” the body’s system.
-It means a more conscious choice to respect ourselves, the environment and the future of our Planet.
-It means more research in harmony with nature.
It is my view, based on the arguments laid out in this paper, that only an organic cosmetic, certified by a regulatory body so as to be publicly recognized, can satisfy the need for a pure, effective product free from synthetic chemicals and without risks for our health and the environment.
I myself came to the world of organic cosmetics about 12 years ago in UK after many years spent as a homeopath and herbalist observing the dynamics of the natural healing processes and the role the skin plays in these.
My observations led me to a novel idea – to work also from outside the body, not only from inside, both to purify and detoxify, but also to nourish the skin and improve its state of health, thus supporting it to better fulfill its key functions as an emunctory organ and one interacting closely with the rest of the body.
And alongside this, the idea of applying onto the skin oil-based extracts of medicinal herbs similar to those prescribed internally in a kind of synergic team game with the aim of winning the healing match in the shortest possible time.
All compounds strictly organic not only to offer the best to our patients (who have the absolute right to the best precisely because they suffer) but also as a guarantee of purity and lack of pesticide or herbicide contamination which comes with organic certification, along with a high proportion of active ingredients and vital force which I feel is so important to ensure.
My experiences led me, in 2001 with my wife, Loredana, to found the first company in UK to receive 100% Organic certification from the Soil Association, contributing thereby to defining the organic cosmetic standards. In 2006 my experience took me further, in collaboration with Cemon srl, a leading Italian company producing and distributing homeopathic remedies, with the creation of INLIGHT, a new company manufacturing a range of 100% Organic, homeopathically friendly skincare products.
My greatest satisfaction, as a man and as a doctor, derives from having contributed to bringing people closer to nature, such an unlimited source of inspiration and example, and for having played my part in bringing cosmetics out onto centre stage, away from the aesthetic and superfluous to create a new unitary image of beauty and health.
A heartfelt thank you to everyone I have met along my journey and who has helped me translate my ideals of unity into practical reality.
– Dawn Mellowship: Toxic Beauty.Gaia – Octopus Publishing Group Ltd London 2009
– Steinman D.& Epstein S (M.D.): The Safe Shopper’s Bible Hungry Minds N.Y.
– Erickson K.: Drop-Dead Gorgeous. Contemporary Books- McGraw-Hill. N.Y. 2002
– Paquet D. (1997), Storia della bellezza; canoni, rituali, belletti, Torino, Electa Gallimard.
– Proserpio G., Ambreck B., Ceoloni M., (2001), Prontuario del cosmetologo: chimica, tecnica,
legislazione, Milano, Tecniche nuove.
– Bronaugh L.- Maibach H.: Percutaneus Absorption, Drugs – Cosmetics – Mechanism- Methodology
Drugs and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 97, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York 1999
– S. Hahneman: Organon dell’arte di guarire. Ed. Cemon Napoli. 2003
– F. Fiori: Dermatologia. Anatomia fisiologia e patologia della pelle. Ed. BCM
Athanasios S Stasinakis, Smaragdi Mermigka, Vasilios G Samaras, Eleni Farmaki, Nikolaos S Thomaidis. Water and Air Quality Laboratory, Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, University Hill, Mytilene, 81 100, Greece
(Epstein, S: How to avoid cancer and other toxic effects, from cosmetics and personal care products: The neway’s story, second edition, Environmental Toxicology Inc., 2005)
Samuel S. Epstein, M.D. Cancer Prevention Coalition University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, www.preventcancer.com
63rd LMHI World Congress 2008: Evidence Based Homeopathy – Oostende, Belgium :”THE ROLE OF THE SKIN IN THE HOMEOPATHIC HEALING PROCESS”. How chemical ingredients in cosmetics and in the environment can have an impact on the skin.
Dr. M Spiezia- www.inlight-online.co.uk
http://toxicbeauty.co.uk/blog/tag/cosmetic-pollution/: Shampoo Boosts Drug-resistant Bacteria Cocktail of Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Chemicals Pollute Oceans
http://www.psr.org/assets/pdfs/hazardous-chemicals-in-health-care.pdf Report: “Hazardous Chemicals in Health Care: A Snapshot of Chemicals in Doctors and Nurses” (2009)
http://www.fwhc.org/health/xeno.htm Xenoestrogens and Breast Cancer: Nowhere to Run
Translated from Italian by Clementina Lombardi under the supervision of Mandy Owens, in the form of a training contract between the University of Naples “Orientale” and CeMON srl.